Early American Places


UGA PressUGA Press

Charleston and the Emergence of Middle Class Culture in the Revolutionary Era

by Jennifer L. Goloboy

New historical perspectives on what it means to be middle class in America

Page count: 208 pp.
6 graphs, 12 tables
Trim size: 6 X 9

ISBN: 978-0-8203-4996-1


“The author provides valuable insight into the values, which form middle-class identities in an ostensibly classless society.
— Ben Moise, The Post and Courier

Too often, says Jennifer L. Goloboy, we equate being middle class with “niceness”—a set of values frozen in the antebellum period and centered on long-term economic and social progress and a close, nurturing family life. Goloboy’s case study of merchants in Charleston, South Carolina, looks to an earlier time to establish the roots of middle-class culture in America. She argues for a definition more applicable to the ruthless pursuit of profit in the early republic. To be middle class then was to be skilled at survival in the market economy.

What prompted cultural shifts in the early middle class, Goloboy shows, were market conditions. In Charleston, deference and restraint were the bywords of the colonial business climate, while rowdy ambition defined the post-Revolutionary era, which in turn gave way to institution building and professionalism in antebellum times. Goloboy’s research also supports a view of the Old South as neither precapitalist nor isolated from the rest of American culture, and it challenges the idea that post-Revolutionary Charleston was a port in decline by reminding us of a forgotten economic boom based on slave trading, cotton exporting, and trading as a neutral entity amid warring European states.

This fresh look at Charleston’s merchants lets us rethink the middle class in light of the new history of capitalism and its commitment to reintegrating the Old South into the world economy.

The interesting parts of the book deal with the intrepid entrepreneurship of the merchant class in Charleston in responding to shifting market conditions, such as those caused by blockades and foreign and domestic tariffs. Goloboy’s book tackles an impalpable topic and provides an interesting jumping-off point for further discussions about the cultural and economic distinctions of class.
— Ben Moise, The Post and Courier

About the Author


Jennifer L. Goloboy is an independent scholar based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, specializing in the history of the early American middle class. She is the editor of Industrial Revolution: People and Perspectives. Goloboy earned her PhD in the history of American civilization from Harvard University.